Lucio Fontana founded the School of Altamira in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Fontana and his students were influenced by Albert Einstein and his recent scientific discoveries about space. They created artistic responses to these new theories of relativity, space-time and a universe that expands constantly, rather than one that stays still.
Dada started in Zurich, Switzerland between the world wars. It responded to the horrors of World War One with nonsense and absurdity. Dada artists worked in all media to denounce war and the modern obsession with logic. More recently, Adam Pendelton coined “Black Dada” to describe his work as an artist.
The Black Arts Movement started in response to the assassination of Malcom X. Amiri Baraka, a poet and playwright, founded it as a movement in Black literature and Black theatre. Baraka wanted art to drive political action. The Black Arts Movement was also a movement in visual art.
Spiral was a group of Black artists in New York City active in the 1960s. They did not have a distinct style but explored Black identity and political struggle in the civil rights era. It included such illustrious artists as Emma Amos, Romare Bearden, and the Abstract Expressionist Norman Lewis. Among other things, Spiral debated the relationship between abstract and figurative art and whether abstract art had a role in the struggle for civil rights.
The One Dimension Group combines Sufi mysticism with contemporary abstract art. Shakir Hassan Al Said, an Iraqi artist, and philosopher, founded the One Dimension Group in 1971. The group sought unity with true reality, rather than what they just perceived.